Construction crunch slows Japan tsunami rebuilding

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In this Tuesday, March 4, 2014 photo, dumpsters kick up clouds of dirt as they head to construction sites in Otsuchi, Iwate Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Construction has only begun at two of 10 planned sites in Otsuchi and further down the coast. (AP Photo/Junji Kurokawa)

In this Tuesday, March 4, 2014 photo, dumpsters kick up clouds of dirt as they head to construction sites in Otsuchi, Iwate Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Construction has only begun at two of 10 planned sites in Otsuchi and further down the coast. (AP Photo/Junji Kurokawa)

In this Monday, March 3, 2014 photo, a worker removes snow left on an access road at a construction site for housing March 11, 2011 tsunami survivors who lost their homes in Tanohata, Iwate Prefecture, northeastern Japan. In Tanohata, as in many other cities and towns laid waste by the mountain of water that scoured their scenic harbors, groundwork has just finished for a fraction of the many homes due to be built, with construction not yet started. (AP Photo/Junji Kurokawa)

In this Monday, March 3, 2014 photo, Takako Sato, 62, right, a hearing impaired survivor of the March 11, 2011 tsunami, talks in sign language with Atsuko Takeshita, manager of Huck’s House, a vocational center for the disabled, in Tanohata, Iwate Prefecture, northeastern Japan. The wait is just too much for Sato, who after nearly three years is fed up with the temporary housing. Hearing impaired, she waves her hands repeatedly to convey how her house was swept away, and holds them joined as if in prayer to express her frustrations. (AP Photo/Junji Kurokawa)

In this Wednesday, March 5, 2014 photo, access roads to new housing grounds are seen in Rikuzentakata, Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. In the city which lost half of its homes in the disaster and is using soil from mountains being flattened to make space to raise lowland areas for rebuilding, the first 120-unit disaster housing complex will be ready by September. (AP Photo/Junji Kurokawa)

In this Monday, March 3, 2014 photo, Fusako Kudo, 73, a survivor of the March 11, 2011 tsunami, serves coffee at a temporary shelter in Tanohata, Iwate Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Kudo, a widow who survived being swept away by the tsunami, is resigned to a much longer wait. (AP Photo/Junji Kurokawa)

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TANOHATA, Japan (AP) — Tens of thousands of people on Japan’s northeastern coast who were left homeless in the March 2011 tsunami are shivering their way through yet another winter in cramped temporary housing, with perhaps several more to go.

Reconstruction plans are taking shape after three years of debate and red tape, but shortages of skilled workers and materials are delaying the work. In areas such as Tanohata, a fishing town of 3,800 along a scenic stretch of craggy cliffs and forests, less than a tenth of the new housing has been built. Overall, the figure is less than 8 percent completed, and less than a quarter of projects started.

As Japan’s over-stretched construction industry begins gearing up to build venues and revamp aging infrastructure for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, shortages of skilled carpenters and heavy equipment operators as well as cement and other materials, are frustrating residents and local officials.

“It’s just cold, so very cold,” Shio Hironai, 53, said of the hut that has served as home since the 20-meter (65-foot) wave slammed into one of the town’s tiny coves. “And the roof is caving in. It has been all along.”

Japan on Tuesday marks the third anniversary of the earthquake, tsunami and nuclear disasters known as 3.11 that killed 15,884 people and left 2,636 unaccounted for on its northern coast. The country has struggled to rebuild tsunami-hit towns and to clean up radiation from the nuclear crisis. It has earmarked 25 trillion yen ($250 billion) for reconstruction through to March 2016. About 50,000 people from Fukushima are still unable to return home due to concerns over radiation.

Hironai, a former fish factory worker who now helps assemble fishing lures in a workshop set up to provide jobs after the disaster, said she hopes to finally move into a new home by May. “The carpenters are just too busy. We had to find a new company to do the work.”

In Tanohata and many other places in Iwate prefecture and elsewhere, groundwork is still not finished for most of the homes due to be rebuilt. Further to the south in Otsuchi, crews work until dark, rain or shine, leveling land for public housing units, a few here, a few there — wherever land can be cleared away from the most hazardous areas along the seaside.

As the 370 districts planning to resettle residents on higher ground gradually start building, competition for manpower and materials is intensifying.

The priority placed on big infrastructure such as sea walls is slowing the rebuilding of homes and communities while failing to address the region’s longer term decline as younger residents leave and the population shrinks and ages, said Shun Kanda, director of the Japan 3.11 Initiative at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Construction has only begun at two of 10 planned sites in Otsuchi; one of eight in the nearby steel town of Kamaishi, and two of 11 in Onagawa, further down the coast.

In Rikuzentakata, which lost half of its homes in the disaster, the first 120-unit housing complex is due to open in September. Some 2,000 families still need new homes, said Takashi Kubota, the city’s vice mayor.

“Many here are worried that the Olympics construction will slow work still further,” Kubota said.

A flood of public works projects meant to boost the national economy is worsening delays, local officials complain.

Tokyo’s successful Olympic bid is cause for rejoicing, Otsuchi mayor Yutaka Ikarigawa recently told reporters. “But I feel deeply concerned that as construction in the Kanto area (near Tokyo) shifts to preparations for the Olympics, reconstruction will suffer shortages of workers, equipment and materials.”

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